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Quotes

Why use quotes? 

Because they...
  • Give credit where credit it due
  • Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
  • Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
  • Give examples of several points of view on a subject
  • Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with
  • Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original
  • Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own
  • Expand the breadth or depth of your writing

DIRECT QUOTES are...
Quotations that are identical to the original. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.

Here's an example:

INDIRECT QUOTES or PARAPHRASING involves...
putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage.


SUMMARIZING involves putting the main idea into your own words, including only the main point. You still must cite the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.


Compare the three types of quotes... (note that all examples have parenthetical citation).

DIRECT QUOTE

"Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes" (Lester 46-47). 

INDIRECT QUOTE/PARAPHRASE

In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).

SUMMARY

Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).


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